AWIC Tips for Searching for Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing

Provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal Welfare Information Center. These guidelines were developed to assist researchers, information specialists, and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members, when conducting literature searches to determine if alternatives to the use of animals exist and whether a protocol unnecessarily duplicates previous research.

Find information on methods and sources available to address the 3Rs of alternatives. The 3Rs are reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use in research, testing, and teaching. The concept was developed by Russell and Burch in a 1959 book entitled Principles of Humane Experimental Technique.

A fundamental goal of the Animal Welfare Act and the accompanying regulations is the minimization of animal pain and distress via the consideration of alternatives and alternative methods.